Overload happens when current exceeds a safe value. Sometimes this happens due to voltage spikes. Attaching too many devices is also a very common cause. Sometimes there is a short circuit. A short circuit is when a very low resistance path is created, causing enormous amounts of current. For example, when a live wire touches a neutral wire, it creates a short circuit.
Overload protection and short circuit protection can be done by using an electric fuse.
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